Adaptation of plants-regenerants Cerasus serrulata 'Kansan' and Cercis siliquastrum 'Albida' ex vitro
Aim. One of the modern promising methods for obtaining massive planting material is in vitro multiplication. A minimum amount of starting material and in a short time, a large number of morphologically-aligned and genetically homogeneous material can be obtained. This is a separate direction of modern biotechnology, which is based on the use of a culture of tissues, cells and organs of plants capable to form morphogenic bilberry, adventitious kidneys, shoots, and subsequently form the whole plant. The final stage in the process of microclone propagation of plants is adaptation to the conditions of ex vitro. This is a rather complicated and stressful stage for regenerative plants, both morphologically and physiologically. During the adaptation of plants to new conditions, a significant number of regenerants die, so the development of a system of adaptation of Cercis test plants is relevant. Methods. Study of the system of adaptation of plants-regenerants to ex vitro conditions was carried out by investigating the dependence of the state of plants on the composition and acidity of the substrate, soil moisture and air, temperature regime and intensity of illumination. Results. The components of the adaptation of C. siliquastrum 'Albida' and C. serrulata 'Kansan' plants-regenerants to the ex vitro conditions were investigated. An optimal phase of their development is established, during which time they are most adapted to transfer to non-sterile conditions. An integral part of the ex vitro adaptation is the composition and acidity of the substrate. It has been proved by researches that from all presented substrates the following Eko Plus Universal, Polissya Universal and Klassmann Deilman were the most effective. The consumption of adapted plants was 63±2–81±1 % in the reaction of soil medium (pH) of 6.0–6.5. An important condition for the successful growth and development of plants is the humidity of the air, because its lack of air or surplus is harmful. Use in the study of special glass chambers contributed to the absorption of 76±2–80±1% of plants. Equally important for the growth and development of plants is the temperature of the soil and the air on which the intensity of photosynthesis depends, the ability of the root system to absorb nutrients, plant respiration, transpiration and other physiological processes. In our studies, regeneration plants have been growing and developing for a long time at temperatures 24±1°С, a 16-hour photoperiod and adapted all the processes of life exactly to such conditions. Conclusions. Adaptation of plants, with respect to the whole complex of conditions of cultivation (substrate, acidity, humidity, temperature, lighting), contributed to an increase in the incidence of C. siliquastrum 'Albida' to 76%, and at the same time. serrulata 'Kansan' to 81%.
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