Place of Cladrastis kentukea (Dum.-Cours.) Rudd in natural and cultural phytocenoses

Olga Porokhniava


Aim. The work is devoted to the comparative analysis of plant communities, soil and climatic conditions of natural and cultivated habitats of C. kentukea. The obtained results will allow us to offer suitable ecological conditions for cultivation
of this species and to select plants that can successfully exist in artificial phytocenosis together with C. kentukea. Methods. The method of complex analysis of vegetation, climatic and soil conditions of natural and cultivated habitats of C. kentukea was used. The description of C. kentukea habitats in culture was made using an expeditionary survey of the botanical gardens and dendrological parks of the Right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Results. A comparative analysis of the climatic and soil conditions of the study areas showed that there is a significant difference between the natural and the
cultigenic habitats. The natural range is characterized by 2.5 times higher rainfall and twice the average air temperature. The natural habitat of C. kentukea, concentrated in the southeastern part of the North American continent, belongs to a large and monolithic subtropical moist forest sector of yellow soil, red soil and associated gleyed eluvial soil and subtropical ashen-gray soil. The Right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine is dominated by degraded black podzolic soil, gray and dark gray podzolic forests soils. C. kentukea grows in the second tier of mixed deciduous forests in the natural habitat, the plants of this species do not form solid arrays, it occurs by separate localities. The C. kentukea cultivation habitat is extensive, the plants occur in collections of botanical gardens and parks in Europe and Central Asia. When creating durable ornamental
artificial phytocoenoses with the participation of C. kentukea, the optimal spatial placement of plants should be observed and a multilayered planting structure should be formed. Conclusions. Comparative analysis of climatic and soil conditions of natural and cultured habitats showed a significant difference between the average long-term air temperature and the average long-term rainfall in the explored areas. We have found out that plants of the species C. kentukea under cultivated habitat in the Right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine are characterized by complete acclimatization, which indicates the ecological
plasticity of the plants. In the North American natural range, C. kentukea occurs mainly in the associations of Quercus alba — Quercus rubra — Acer rubrum — Acer saccharum — Carya ovata (also described as Acer saccharum — Quercus
muehlenbergii — Cotinus obovatus), Fagus grandifolia — Acer saccharum — Quercus rubra — Quercus velutina and Quercus muehlenbergii — Carya carolinae-septentrionalis — Acer barbatum — Juniperus virginiana — Croton
alabamensis. In artificial phytocenoses of the Right-bank Forest-Steppe,
plants of C. kentukea species grow successfully with Acer platanoides L., Ulmus laevis Pall., Tilia cordata Mill., Fraxinus excelsior L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Carpinus betulus L.


plant groups; natural habitat; cultigenic habitat; climatic conditions; soil conditions.


Alabama Plant Atlas (2015). URL: (Accessed 07 June 2015).

Atlas pochv Ukrainskoi SSR. (1979). Kiev: Urozhai. 160 s. (in Russian).

Barbarich, A. I., & Khorkhota, A. Ia. (1952). Ozelenenie naselennykh mest. Kiev: Izd-vo AA USSR. 743 s. (in Russian).

Climate at a Glance: Time Series (2015). URL:

USW00094846 (Accessed 18 May 2015).

Crow, C. T. (Ed.). (1974). Arkansas Natural Area Plan: State of Arkansas. Little Rock, Arkansas: Arkansas

Department of Planning. P. 53.

Duly, M. L., & Vincent, M. A. (2003). A synopsis of the genus Cladrastis (Leguminosae). Rhodora. Vol. 105. P. 205–239.

Elevations and Distances in the United States (2015). URL:

elvadist.html (Accessed 09 June 2015).

Fernald, M. L. (1950). Gray’s Manual of Botany. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p.

Fox, C. J., Beesley, T. E., Leighty, R. G, Lusk, E., Harmon, A. B., Smith, H. C., Methvin, C., & Flowers R. L. (1958). Franklin county, Tennessee. Soil survey. Washington D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office. Series 1949, No. 8. P. 3–4.

Glazovskaia, M. A. (1975). Pochvy zarubezhnykh stran. Moskva: Mysl’. 351 s. (in Russian).

Hensiruk, S. A., Kucheriavyj, V. O., Hajdarova, L. J., & Bondarenko, V. D. (1991). Zeleni skarby Ukrainy. Kyiv: Urozhaj. 191 s. (in Ukrainian).

Herkert, J. R., & Ebinger, J. E. (2002). Endangered and Threatened Species of Illinois: Status and Distribution.

Springfield, IL: Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. Volume 1: Plants. 161 p.

Hill, S. R. (2007). Conservation Assessment for Yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea (Dum.-Cours.) Rudd).

INHS Technical Report. Division of Biodiversity and Ecological Entomology, Biotic Surveys and Monitoring Section. No 28. 33 р.

Hoagland, B. (2000). The vegetation of Oklahoma: a classification for landscape mapping and conservation planning. Southwestern Naturalist. Vol. 45. No. 4. P. 385–420.

Iakovlev, G. P. (1987). Rod Kladrastis — Cladrastis Rafin. Flora Evropeiskoi chasti SSSR: Pokritosemennye–

Dvudol’nye. Leningrad: Nauka. S. 24–26. (in Russian).

Isely, D. (1990). Leguminosae (Fabaceae). Vascular Flora of the Southeastern United States. Chapel Hill: The

University of North Carolina Press. Volume 3. Part 2. 258 p.

Kottek, M., Grieser, J., Beck, C., Rudolf, B., & Rubel, F. (2006). World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification update. Meteorologische Zeitschrift. Vol. 15. No. 3. Р. 259–263.

Lavrinenko, Iu. (2009). Drevesnye introdutsenty semeistva Fabaceae Lindl. v usloviiakh Respubliki Severnaia Osetiia — Alaniia. Visnyk Kyivs’koho nats. un-tu. Introduktsiia ta zberezhennia roslynnoho riznomanittia. Vyp. 19–21. S. 149–150. (in Russian).

Lipins’kyj, V. M., Diachuk, V. A., & Babichenko, V. M. (Red.). (2003). Klimat Ukrainy. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo Raievs’koho. S. 125–174. (in Ukrainian).

Michaux, F. A. (1813). Histoire Des Arbres Forestiers de L’amérique Septentrionale. Paris: De L’imprimerie De L. Haussmann. Vol. 3. Р. 266–268. (in French).

Mohlenbrock, R. H. (2002). Vascular Flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 491 p.

Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., & McMahon, T. A. (2007). Updated world map of the Koppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. Vol. 11. No. 5. Р. 1633–1644.

Phillips, W. W., & Harper, M. D. (1977). Soil Survey of Benton County, Arkansas. Washington D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office. P. 3.

Robertson, K. R. (1977). Cladrastis: the yellow-wood. Arnoldia. Vol. 37. P. 137–150.

Robertson, P. A., & Pusateri, W. P. (1976). Structural analysis of a stand containing Yellowwood in southern Illinois. Proceedings of the 1th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. P. 119–130.

Shkvaruk, M. M., & Delemenchuk, M. I. (1969). Hruntoznavstvo. Kyiv: Urozhaj. 412 s. (in Ukrainian).

Sokolov, S. Ia. (Red.). (1958). Derev’ia i kustarniki SSSR. Moskva–Leningrad: Izd-vo AN SSSR. T. IV. S. 82. (in Russian).

State Climate Extremes Committee (SCEC) (2014). URL:

(Accessed 12 February 2014).

Turner, L. M. (1935). Notes on forest types of northwestern Arkansas. American Midland Naturalist. Vol. 16. No. 3. P. 417–421.

Yakovlev, G. P., Sytin, A. K., & Roskov, Yu. R. (1996). Legumes A Check-List of Northern Eurasia. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 724 p.

Zanoni, T. A., Gentry, J. L., Tyrl, R. J. & Risser, P. G. (1979). Endangered and threatened plants of Oklahoma. Norman, Okla.: Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, and Department of General and Evolutionary Biology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater. 64 p.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.