Genetic peculiarities and strategy of the pea breeding for the winter sowing

Vyacheslav Sichkar, Ruslan Solomonov


Aim. The need to grow peas under winter sowing in the connection with climate change was grounded. The analysis of the state of research in this area in Ukraine and abroad was conducted. The need to create an initial breeding material for the development of cultivars suitable for this technology was supported. Methods. Field studies were conducted on the experimental fields of Odessa State Agricultural Research Station, which is located in the central area of the region. The reaction to the sowing in the autumn of the typically spring cultivars of pea ‘Svit’ and ‘Darunok Stepu’, which are recommended for cultivation in our country, as well as the foreign cultivars of ‘Moroz’, ‘Enduro’ and ‘Balltrap’, which were specially bred for autumn sowing, had been studied. The experiments were laid in the autumn of October 1, 10, 20 and 30, in spring in March, when the soil condition allows sowing. Phenological observations were carried out during the growing season and the necessary measurements of biometric parameters had been made. Results. In autumn of 2017, well-developed seedlings of all 4 cultivars were obtained; the plants grew normally without any deviations. Normal cultivars of ‘Svit’ and ‘Darunok Stepu’ formed an elevated above-ground mass. In the middle of winter (January 2018) the seedlings also had a satisfactory appearance, with the first sowing being more developed above ground. They were not damaged by the first frosts; they had a well-developed root system. In autumn of 2018, a rather severe drought occurred in the study area, sowing was carried out in dry soil; no seedlings were obtained for all three terms. In spring of 2019, good seedlings were obtained under the sowing on October 19 and 30. Under the autumn sowing on October 10, the seedlings were thinned. Subsequently, the plants grew and developed without any deviation. Full maturation in 2018 occurred June 1–2, in 2019 June 8–10. Yields of ‘Moroz’ and ‘Enduro’ cultivars were significantly higher under winter sowing on October 19, 2018 compared to spring. A significant increase in the yield of this sowing period was also observed in the ‘Svit’ cultivar. ‘Darunok Stepu’ gave about the same yield as in spring and autumn sowing. Features of breeding of pea cultivars for winter sowing, nature of inheritance of cold resistance, influence of certain genes on the level of winter hardiness are discussed. Conclusions. Autumn sowing of peas should be carried out at the beginning of the second half of October. ‘Enduro’ cultivar stands out for yield from the foreign cultivars for this technology. Based on the analysis of literature sources, the best cold-resistant genotypes of foreign origin are described, which should be included in the breeding process to create valuable initial material.


pea varieties; winter sowing; cold resistance; yield; inheritance of cold resistance.


Auld, D.I., Ditterline, R.L., Murray, G.A., Swensen, J.B. (1983). Screening peas for winterhardiness under field and laboratory conditions. Crop. Science. v. 23. № 1. P. 85–88.

Baldwin, L., Domon, J., Klimek, J., Fournet, F., Selier, H., Gillet, F…Rayon, C. (2014). Structural alteration of cell wall pectins accompanies pea development in response to cold. Phytochemistry. v. 104. P. 37–47.

Ceyhan, E. (2006). Genetic analysis of cold hardness in peas (Pisum sativum L.). Journal Plant Science. v.1. № 2. P. 138–143.

Dumont, E., Fontaine, V., Vuylsteker, C., Sellier, H., Bоdele, S., Voedts, N… Delbreil, B. (2009). Association of sugar content QTL and PQL with physiological traits relevant to frost damage resistance in pea under field and controlled conditions. Theoretical Applied Genetics. v. 118. № 8. P. 1561–1571.

Fowler, S., Thomashow, M.F. (2002). Arabidopsis transcriptome profiling indicates that multiple regulatory pathway are activated during cold acclimation in addition to the CBF cold response pathway. Plant Cell. v. 14. № 8. P. 1675–1690.

Grimaud, F., Renaut, J., Dumont, E., Sergeant, K., Lucau-Danila, P., Blervacq, A.S…Goulas, E. (2013). Exploring chloroplastic changes related to chilling and freezing tolerance during cold acclimation of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Journal of Proteomics. v. 8. P. 145–159.

Homer, A., Sahin, M., Kucukozdemir, U. (2016). Evaluation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) germplasm for winter hardiness in Central Anatolia, Turkey, using field controlled environment. Czech j. Genet. Plant Breed. v. 52. № 2. P. 55–63.

Hemura, M., Kawamura, U. (2014). Plant low-temperature tolerance and its cellular mechanism. Plant Abiotic Stress (ed. Jenks, M.A., Hasegawa, P.M.). Wiley – Blackwell, Ames, IA. P. 109–122.

Klein, A., Houten, H., Rond, C., Marget, P., Jacquin, F., Boucherot, K…Burstin, J. (2014). QTL analysis of frost damage in pea suggests different mechanisms involved in frost tolerance. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. v. 127. № 6. P. 1319–1330.

Kosev, V. (2015). Evaluation of genetic divergence and heritability in winter field pea genotypes. Selekciya I Nasinnictwo. № 108. S. 106–115.

Kyrychenko, V.V., Kobyzeva, L.N., Petrenkova, V.P., Ryabchun, V.K., Bezugla, O.M., Markova, T.Yu. (2009). Identificaciya oznak zernobobowih cultur (kwasolya, nut, sochewica). Kharkiv. Plant Production Institute na. a V. Ya. Yuriyev. 172 p. ( In Ukrainian).

Liesenfeld, D.R., Auld, D.L., Murray, C.A., Swensen, J.B. (1986). Transmittance of winterhardiness in segregated populations of peas. Crop Science. v. 26. № 1. P. 49–54.

Lejeune-Henaut, I., Hanocq, E., Bethencourt, L. (2008). The flowering locus Hr colocalizes with a major QTL affecting winter frost tolerance in Pisum sativum L. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. v. 116. N 8. P. 1105 – 1116.

Legrand, S., Marque, G., Blassiau, A., Blutean, A., Canoy, A., Fontaine, V…Lejeune-Henaut, I. (2013). Combining gene expression and genetic analyses to identify candidate genes involved in cold responses in pea. Journal Plant Physiology. v. 170. N 13. P. 1148 – 1157.

Liu, R., Fang, L., Yang, T., Zhang, X., Hu, J., Zhang, H…Zong, X. (2017). Marker – trait association analysis of frost tolerance of 672 worldwide pea ( Pisum sativum L.) collections. Science reports. v. 7. 5919. DOI: 10.1038/541598:017-06222-y.

Mikič, A., Mihailovič, V., Čupine, B., Dordevič, V., Milič, D., Due, G. (2011). Achievements in breeding autumn-sown annual legumes for temperate region with emphasis on the continental Balkans. Euphytica. v. 180. N 1. P. 57 – 67.

Markarian, D., Harwood, R.R., Rowe, Ph.R. (1968). The inheritance of winter hardiness in Pisum. II. Description and release of advance generation breeding lines. Euphytica. v. 17. N 1. P. 110 – 113.

Murfet, I.C. (1971a). Flowering in Pisum. Three distinct phenotypic classes determined by the interaction of a dominant early late gene. Heredity. v. 26. P. 243 – 257.

Murfet, I.C. (1971b). Flowering in Pisum. A three – gene system. Heredity. v. 27. P. 93 – 110.

Murfet, I.C. (1971c). Flowering in Pisum. Reciprocal grafts between known genotypes. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences. v. 24. N 4. P. 1084 – 1101.

Murfet, I.C. (1973). Flowering in Pisum. Hr, a gene for high response to photoperiod. Heredity. v. 31. N 2. P. 157 – 164.

McPhee, K. (2003). Dry pea production and breeding – a mini – review. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. v. 1. N 1. P. 64 – 69.

Stoddard, F.L., Balko, C., Erskine, W., Khan, H.R., Link, W., Sarker, A. (2006). Screening techniques and sources of resistance to abiotic stresses in cool season food legumes. Euphytica. v. 147. N 1 – 2. P. 167 – 186.

Swensen, J.B., Murray, G.A. (1983). Cold acclimation of field peas in a controlled environment. Crop Science. v. 23. N 1. P. 27 – 30.

Silim, S.N., Hebblethwaite, P.D., Heath, M.C. (1985). Comparison of the effect of autumn and spring sowing date on growth and yield of combining peas (Pisum sativum L.). The Journal of Agricultural Science. v. 104. N 1. P. 35 – 46.

Urbatzka, P., Grag, R., Haase, T., Schiiler, C., Trautz, D., Hefg, J. (2011). Grain yield and quality characteristics of different genotypes of winter pea in comparison to spring pea for organic farming in pure and mixed stands. Organic Agriculture. v. 1. N 4. P. 187 – 202.

Welbaum, G.E., Bian, D., Hill, D.R., Grayson, R.L., Gunatilaka, M.K. (1997). Freezing tolerance, protein composition, and abscisic acid localization and content of pea epicotyls, shoot, and root tissue in response to temperature and water stress. Journal of Esperimental Botany. v. 48. N 308. P. 643 – 654.

Wellensick, S.J. (1925). Genetic monography on Pisum. Biblhia genetica. N 2. P. 343 – 476.

Zhang, X., Wan, S., Hao, J., Hu, J., Yang, T., Zong, X. (2016). Large – scale evaluation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) germplasm for cold tolerance in the field during winter in Qingdao. The crop journal. v. 4. N 5. P. 377 – 383.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.