Genetic peculiarities and strategy of the pea breeding for the winter sowing
Aim. The need to grow peas under winter sowing in the connection with climate change was grounded. The analysis of the state of research in this area in Ukraine and abroad was conducted. The need to create an initial breeding material for the development of cultivars suitable for this technology was supported. Methods. Field studies were conducted on the experimental fields of Odessa State Agricultural Research Station, which is located in the central area of the region. The reaction to the sowing in the autumn of the typically spring cultivars of pea ‘Svit’ and ‘Darunok Stepu’, which are recommended for cultivation in our country, as well as the foreign cultivars of ‘Moroz’, ‘Enduro’ and ‘Balltrap’, which were specially bred for autumn sowing, had been studied. The experiments were laid in the autumn of October 1, 10, 20 and 30, in spring in March, when the soil condition allows sowing. Phenological observations were carried out during the growing season and the necessary measurements of biometric parameters had been made. Results. In autumn of 2017, well-developed seedlings of all 4 cultivars were obtained; the plants grew normally without any deviations. Normal cultivars of ‘Svit’ and ‘Darunok Stepu’ formed an elevated above-ground mass. In the middle of winter (January 2018) the seedlings also had a satisfactory appearance, with the first sowing being more developed above ground. They were not damaged by the first frosts; they had a well-developed root system. In autumn of 2018, a rather severe drought occurred in the study area, sowing was carried out in dry soil; no seedlings were obtained for all three terms. In spring of 2019, good seedlings were obtained under the sowing on October 19 and 30. Under the autumn sowing on October 10, the seedlings were thinned. Subsequently, the plants grew and developed without any deviation. Full maturation in 2018 occurred June 1–2, in 2019 June 8–10. Yields of ‘Moroz’ and ‘Enduro’ cultivars were significantly higher under winter sowing on October 19, 2018 compared to spring. A significant increase in the yield of this sowing period was also observed in the ‘Svit’ cultivar. ‘Darunok Stepu’ gave about the same yield as in spring and autumn sowing. Features of breeding of pea cultivars for winter sowing, nature of inheritance of cold resistance, influence of certain genes on the level of winter hardiness are discussed. Conclusions. Autumn sowing of peas should be carried out at the beginning of the second half of October. ‘Enduro’ cultivar stands out for yield from the foreign cultivars for this technology. Based on the analysis of literature sources, the best cold-resistant genotypes of foreign origin are described, which should be included in the breeding process to create valuable initial material.
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