Adaptive ability of agricultural plants in extreme conditions of the Northern Trans-Urals
Keywords:genetic resources, stress factors, chemical mutagenesis, nanotechnology, variability
AbstractAim. The article aims to analyze and summarize scientific data on the biodiversity of cultivated plants in the soil and climatic conditions of the Northern Trans-Urals. The research is developed to identify the maximum potential of crops, study the patterns of interaction between “genotype×environment” as the most important manifestation of the adaptation effect, and create mutant and hybrid forms based on genetic and biotechnological methods. The materials may be of interest in discussing new approaches to food security. Methods. Experiments under simulated conditions were performed in the laboratory of biotechnological and microbiological research of the Institute of Biology of Tyumen State University (TSU). Field tests were conducted at the experimental site of the Biological Station of TSU “Lake Kuchak” to study the genetic diversity of cultivated plants and at the experimental site of the Tobolsk scientific station of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Laying of experiments, accounting, and observation had been carried out according to the classical methods of State Variety Trials of the Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) and the CMEA International Classifiers for various plant genera. Results. Abiotic and biotic factors influencing the structural and functional state of cultivated plants Triticum aestivum L., Hordeum vulgare L., Linum ussitatisimum L. had been analyzed. The data on the potential implementation of the genotype through selectively valuable characteristics of plants at the phenotypic level had been presented. An assessment of fusarium resistance was carried out in 22 cultivars of spring bread wheat grown in the Northern Trans-Urals. Cultivars, collection specimens, mutants and hybrids that had proven themselves in the process of comprehensive assessments in simulated laboratory conditions and field trials could be included in breeding programs as sources and donors of valuable traits. The prospect of the introduction of Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and Linum usitatissimum L. in the South of the Tyumen region is determined by the search of cultivars for most adapted to the limiting factors (temperature mode and photoperiod). The efficiency of pre-sowing treatment of spring wheat seeds with nanoparticles of silver, silicon and biological products was considered as a method of protecting plants from the effects of phytopathogenic fungi. Conclusions. A wide variability range of morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic characters of plants in the Northern Trans-Urals was revealed. The use of express diagnostics of chlorophyll in leaf cells using SPAD 502 device made it possible to obtain new information on the physiological status of plants under changing environmental conditions. The role of mutational and recombination variability for increasing the genetic diversity of plants was shown. A positive effect had been obtained from the pre-sowing treatment of seeds of spring soft wheat cultivars with silver nanoparticles to activate growth processes with the prospect of minimizing the use of chemical fertilizers.
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