‘Dar Sofiyivky’ as a new Ukrainian cultivar of persimmon (Diospyros L.)
Keywords:adaptation, plant hypobiosis, global warming, winter hardiness, interspecific hybridization, persimmon cultivars.
Aim. Creation of new domestic persimmon cultivars (Diospyros spp.) adapted to the soil and climatic conditions of Ukraine will contribute to the introduction of new fruit plants into the industrial horticulture that combines high productivity and fruit quality, enriches the assortment of food products and improves the components of rational alimentation. Methods. Field studies of the persimmon species, cultivar and form collection, hybridization and station testing of hybrid seedlings have been conducted in the orchards of State Enterprise Experimental Facility “Novokakhovska” of Institute of Rice of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine (Kherson region). In vitro seed germination of and two-year hybrid persimmon seedlings growth has been carried out in the Department of Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biology of Plants of the National Dendrological Park "Sofiyivka" of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. The rest of the experiments and data statistical analysis have been done using generally accepted methods in breeding. Results. Advantages of D virginiana L. in hybridization with D. kaki Thunb. to increase the persimmon adaptability to unfavorable wintering factors have been confirmed in the extreme temperature conditions of the winters of 2005–2006 and 2011–2012. In the hybrid progeny from free pollination of the ‘Kolhospnytsia’ cultivar with the American persimmon D. virginiana in the genealogy, a new cultivar ‘Dar Sofiyivky’ has been selected. It combines increased winter hardiness with good fruit quality, early fruit production and early ripeness. In 2019, the cultivar ‘Dar Sofiyivky’ has been included in the State Register of Plant Varieties suitable for distribution in Ukraine. In vitro technologies have been used in the tissue culture laboratory of the “Sofiyivka” Dendrological Park for germination of interspecific hybrids seeds, which have insufficient germination in the field. A initial hybrid seedling has been obtained, from which the ‘Dar Sofiyivky’ genealogy is derived. Conclusions. Horticultural plant breeding, in particular persimmons (Diospyros spp.), in areas with ecologically different contrasting conditions within the framework of a single program to increase the adaptability of plants and the quality of fruits is promoted to accelerate breeding and expand the northern border cultivation of thermophilic fruit crops.
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