Etymological explorations: walnut (Juglans regia L.)

Authors

  • Volodymyr Mezhenskyj
  • Liudmyla Mezhenska

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37555/2707-3114.16.2020.219824

Keywords:

Juglans regia, walnut, phytonymy, toponyms.

Abstract

Aim. The article aims to find out and analyze the origin and use of scientific and folk names of Juglans regia, as well as other related proper names. Methods. The method of direct analysis and synthesis, historical and logical methods and comparative-historical method were used. Results. The Ancient Greeks and Romans called the introduced fruit plant as the Persian nut. Carl Linnaeus established a new genus Juglans, instead of Nux, which was used by his predecessors. He gave a scientific diagnosis of Juglans regia. The Ukrainian name «horikh» (nut) has Proto-Slavic roots. «Voloskyi horikh» (walnut) is the specific Ukrainian name for the crop, and inversion variant of which «Horich voloskyi» or «Horich tsarskyi», as the name corresponds to the author's Latin, are Ukrainian scientific names for this species. In everyday life as well as scientific literature, instead of Ukrainian names, there is sometimes a paired variant «Hretskyi horikht»/«Horikh hrеtskyi». Conclusions. Substitution of the specific Ukrainian name of Juglans regia in Ukrainian-language publications by the Russian term is unjustified and requires purification of the scientific language. In the scientific literature, it is necessary to distinguish between the Ukrainian species name Juglans regia and the crop name, which differ in word order. In Ukraine, «nut» toponyms are quite rarely etymologically related to walnut, although there is a reinterpretation of the names.

References

Alefeld, F. (1861). Ueber Juglans L. Bonplandia. 9, 334–338.

Bauhin, C. (1596). Pinax theatri botanici. Basel: Regis.

Bibilashvili, V. Ya. (1901). Neskolko slov o voloshskom orekhe (Juglans regia) [A few words about the walnut (Juglans regia)]. Kavkazskoe selskoe khozyajstvo. 8(404), 646–647. (in Russian).

Candolle, A. de. (1885). Origin of Cultivated Plants. New York: D. Appleton. Retrieved 19 February 2015. (First edition in French) https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.29067.

Chudinov, A. N. (1910). Slovar inostrannykh slov, voshedshikh v sostsv russkogo yazyka [Dictionary of foreign words included in the composition of the Russian language] (3rd ed.). Sankt-Peterburg: Gubinskij. (in Russian).

Derzhavnyi reiestr sortov roslyn, prydatnykh dlia poshyrennia v Ukraini na 2020 r. [State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine in 2020]. Retrieved from http://sops.gov.ua/reestr-sortiv-roslin. (in Ukrainian).

Dotzenko, P. P., & Yurchuk, L. A. (Eds). (1971). Slovnyk ukrainskoi movy [Dictionary of the Ukrainian language] (Vol. 2). Kyiv: Naukova dumka. (in Ukrainian).

Dvoretzkij, I. Kh. (1986). Latinsko-russkij slovar [Latin-Russian dictionary]. Moskva: Russkij yazyk. (in Russian).

Dzhanashvili, M. (1894). Voloshskiy orekh i ego kultura [Walnut and its culture]. Kavkazskoe selskoe khozyajstvo. 1(48), 810–812. (in Russian).

Dzyubin, M. A. (1896). O plodovodstve d Krymu: istoriko-statisticheskij ocherk [About fruit growing in Crimea: historical and statistical essay]. Sankt-Peterburg: Stasyulevich. (in Russian).

FAOSTAT (n.d.). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. URL: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC.

Fedorov, F. A. (1855). Krym, s Sevastopolem, Balaklavoyu s drugimi gorodami [Crimea, with Sevastopol, Balaklava and other cities]. Sankt-Peterburg: Vejmar. (in Russian).

Gomilevskij, V. I. (1882). Gretzkij ili volozhskij orekh (Juglans regia DC.) ego polza i razvedenie [Walnut (Juglans regia DC.): Its benefits and cultivation]. Zapiski imperatorskogo obshchestva selskogo khozyaistva yuzhnoj Rossii. 9, 528–538. (in Russian).

Gomilevskij, V. I. (1886). O razmnozhenii gretskogo ili voloshskogo orekha posredstvom privivki [About the reproduction of walnut or voloshsky walnut through grafting]. Otchety i trudy Odesskogo otdeleniya ivperatorskigo Rossijskogo obshchestva sadovodstva za 1885 g 62–67. (in Russian).

Gomilevskij, V. I. (1893). Gretzkij ili voloshskij orekh. Vestnik sadovodstva, plodovodstva i ogorodnichestva. 34(11), 527–535. (in Russian).

Gomilevskij, V. I. (1894). Gretzkij ili volozhskij orekh. Issledovaniya prirody i kultury e`togo dereva [Walnut: Studies of the nature and culture of this tree]. Zapiski imperatorskogo obshchestva selskogo khozyaistva yuzhnoj Rossii. 3, 1–24; 4, 50–65. (in Russian).

Gomilevskij, V. I. (1915). Gretzkij ili volozhskij orekh (Juglans regia DC.) [Walnut (Juglans regia DC.)]. Postov-na-Donu: Postovskoe obshchestvo sadovodstva. (in Russian).

Hablits, K. I. (1785). Fizicheskoe opisanie Tavrycheskoj oblasty po eia mestopolozheniyu, y po vsem trem tsarstvam pryrody [A physical description of the Tauride region by its location, and by all three kingdoms of nature]. Sankt-Peterburg: Veitbrekht. (in Russian).

Haborak, M. (2008). Nazvy hir i polonyn: slovnyk-dovidnyk [Names of mountains and valleys] (2nd ed.). Ivano-Frankivsk: Misto NV. (in Ukrainian)

Hehelskyi, N. (1979). Voloskyi horikh [Walnut] In Ukrainska radianska entsyklopediia (2nd ed., Vol. 3). Kyiv: Holovna redaktsiia Ukrainskoi radianskoi entsiklopedii. (in Ukrainian).

Holovashchuk, S. I. (Ed.). (1960). Russko-ukrainskij slovar [Russian-Ukrainian dictionary] (Vol. 1). Kyiv: Naukova dumka. (in Ukrainian).

Hordienko, G. (1970). Istoriia kulturnykh roslyn [History of cultivated plants]. Munich: Ukrainisches Technisch-Wirtschaftliches Institut. (in Ukrainian).

Humetska, L. L., & Kernytskyi, I. M. (Eds). Slovnyk staroukrainskoi movy XIV–XV st. (1977). [Dictionary of the Old Ukrainian language of the XIV-XV centuries] (Vol. 1). Kyiv: Naukova dumka. (in Ukrainian).

Keightley, T. (1846). Notes on the Bucolics and Georgics of Virgil. London: Whittaker.

Keppen, P. (1837). Kremskij sbornik. O drevnostyakh Yuzhnogo berega Kryma i gor Tavrycheskikh [Crimean collection. On the Antiquities of the Southern Coast of Crimea and the Tauride Mountains]. Sankt-Peterburg: Izdatelstvo imperatorskoj Akademii nauk. (in Russian).

Kirichenko, I. N. (Ed.). (1953). Ukrainsko-rosiiskyi slovnyk [Ukrainian-Russian dictionary]. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo AN URSR. (in Ukrainian).

Kobiv, Yu. (2004). Slovnyk ukrainskykh naukovykh i narodnykh nazv sudynnykh roslyn [Dictionary of Ukrainian scientific and folk names of vascular plants]. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. (in Ukrainian).

Kondaraki, V. Kh. (1873). Universalnoe opisanie Kryma [Universal description of Crimea] (Vol. 1). Nilolaev: Kraevskij. (in Russian).

Kondaraki, V. Kh. (1875). Universalnoe opisanie Kryma [Universal description of Crimea] (Vol. 6). Sankt-Peterburg: Villing. (in Russian).

Kotov, M. I. (1965). Rodyna horikhovі – Juglandaceae [Walnut family – Juglandaceae] In M. I. Kotov (Ed.), Vyznachnyk roslyn URSR, pp. 195–196. Kyiv: Urozhai. (in Ukrainian).

Lewis, C. T., & Short, C. A new Latin Dictionary. New York: Harper & Brathers; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1891. 2019 р.

Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species plantarum. Stockholm: L. Salvius.

Lohhinov, B. Y., & Shchepotiev, F. L. (1948). Voloskyi horikh [Walnut]. Kharkiv; Kyiv: Derzhsilhospvydav URSR. (in Ukrainian).

Lonachevskyi, O. O., & Kotov, M. I. (1952). Rodyna Horikhovi – Juglandaceae Lindl. [Walnut family Juglandaceae Lindl.] In M. I. Kotov (Ed.) Flora URSR (Vol. 4), pp. 86–93. Кyiv: Vydavnytstvo AN URSR. (in Ukrainian).

Luchyk, V. V. (2014). Etymolohichnyi slovnyk toponimiv Ukrainy [Etymological dictionary of toponyms of Ukraine]. Kyiv: Akademiia. (in Ukrainian)

Maloroslost voloshskogo orekha v Kazatine (1902). [Walnut stunting in Cazatin] Plodovodstvo, 540. (in Russian).

Melnichuk, O. S., Bilodid, I. K., Kolomiiets, V. T., Tkachenko, O. B. (Eds.) (1982) Etymolohichnyi slovnyk ukrainskoi movy [Etymological dictionary of Ukrainian language] (Vol. 1). Kyiv: Naukova dumka. (in Ukrainian).

Mezhenskyj, V. M., & Mezhenska, L. O. (2015). Formuvannia kolektsii ta udoskonalennia metodiv doboru netradytsiinykh plodovykh i dekoratyvnykh kultur [Formation of the collection and improvement of plant breeding methods of rare fruit and ornamental crops]. Kyiv: Komprint. (in Ukrainian).

Morozyuk, S. S. (1987). Semeistvo Orekhovye (Horikhovi) – Juglandaceae [Walnut family – Juglandaceae] In Yu. N. Prokundin, D. N. Dobrochaeva, B. V. Zaverukha, V. V. Protopopova, V. I. Chopik, L. I. Kritskaya (Eds). Opredelitel vycshikh rastenij Ukrainy, 63–64. Kiev: Naukova dumka (in Russian).

Nekrasova, V. L. (1936). Orekh – Juglans L. [Walnut – Juglans L.]. In V. L. Komarov (Ed.) Flora SSSR (Vol. 5), 248–252. Moskva; Leningrad: Izdatelstvo AN SSSR (in Russian).

Nimchuk, V. V. (Ed.). (1973). Leksykon latynskyi Ye. Slavynetskoho: Leksykon sloveno-latynskyi Ye. Slavynetskoho ta A. Koretskoho-Satanovskoho [Latin lexicon by E. Slavynetsky: Slovenian-Latin lexicon by E. Slavynetsky and A. Koretsky-Satanovsky]. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. (in Ukrainian).

Obrezka voloshskogo orekha (1903) [Trimming walnut]. Plodovodstvo, 1053. (in Russian)

Pliny the Elder (1855). The Natural History. (J. Bostock, H. T. Riley, Trans. and eds; G. R. Crane, Chief ed.). Taylor & Francis; Tufts University: Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved 24 May 2009. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?

doc=Plin.+Nat.+toc&redirect=true (Original work published ca. 70).

Polishchuk, L. K. (1959). Voloskyi horikh na Ukraini [Walnut in Ukraine]. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo Kyivskoho universitetu. (in Ukrainian).

Pollegioni, P., Woeste, K. E., Chiocchini, F., Del Lungo, S., Olimpieri, I., Tortolano, V., Clark, J., Hemery, G. E., Mapelli, S., & Malvolti, M. E. (2015). Ancient humans influenced the current spatial genetic structure of common walnut populations in Asia // PLoS One. 10(9), e0135980.

Posev voloshskogo orekha (1903) [Sowing walnut]. Plodovodstvo, 250. (in Russian).

Sadivnytstvo, vynohradarstvo ta kheliarstvo v Ukraini [Horticulture, viticulture and hop growing in Ukraine]. Kyiv: Derzhanvyi komitet statystyky Ukrainy, 1999. 213 p. (in Ukrainian).

Sandberg, V. (1933). Voloskyi horikh [Walnut]. Kharkiv; Kyiv: Derzhsilhospvydav URSR. (in Ukrainian).

Semeniuchenko, O. V. (2009). Osoblyvosti etymologichnoho metodu v hermenevtytsi [Features of the etymological method in hermeneutics]. Kultura i suchasnist. 2, 43–49.

Shmalgausen, I. (1886). Flora Yugozapadnoj Rossii [Flora of Southwest Russia]. Kiev: Kulzhenko. (in Russian).

Shmalgausen, I. (1897). Flora Srednej i Yuzhnoj Rossii, Kryma i Severnogo Kavkaza [Flora of Central and South Russia, Crimea and North Caucasus] (Vol. 2). Kiev: Kushnarev. (in Russian).

Shvets, H. I., Drozd, N. I., & Levchenko, S. P. (1957). Katalog richok Ukrainy [Catalog of rivers of Ukraine]. Kyiv: Vydavnutztvo AN USSR. (in Ukrainian).

Simirenko, L. P. (1912). Krymskoe promyshlennoe sadovodstvo [Crimean industrial horticulture] (Vol. 1). Moskva: Kushnerev. (in Russian).

Smirnov, O. I. (Ed.). (1987). Slovar russkogo yazyka XI–XVII vv. [Dictionary of the Russian language of the 11th–17th centuries] (Issue 13). Moskva: Nauka. (in Russian).

Slovar tserkovno-slavyanskogo i russkogo yazyka (1847). [Dictionary of Church Slavonic and Russian] (Vol. 1). Sankt-Peterburg: Imperatorskaya Academia nauk. (in Russian).

Slovnyk botanichnoi nomenklatury (Proiekt). (1928). [Dictionary of botanical nomenclature (Project). Кyiv: Derzhavne vydavnytstvo Ukrainy. (in Ukrainian)

Smolyaninova, L. А. (1936). Orekh gretskij [Walnut] In E. V. Vulf, N. G. Dudar (Eds). Kulturnaya flora SSSR (Vol. 17), pp. 37–99. Moskva; Leningrad: Gosselkhozizdat. (in Russian).

Sokolov, V. Ya. (1959). Juglandaceae Lindl. – Orekhovye [Juglandaceae Lindl. – Walnuts] In V. Ya. Sokolov (Ed.) Derevyas i kustarhiki SSSR (Vol. 2), pp. 221–263. Moskva; Leningrad: Izdatelstvo AN SSSR. (in Russian).

Theophrastus (1951). Issledovanie o rasteniiakh [Enquiry into Plants] (M. E. Sergienko, Trans.). Moskva: Izdatelstvo AN SSSR (Original work published ca. 350 B.C.E.) (in Russian).

Tournefort, J. P. (1700). Institutiones rei herbariae (Vol. 1). Paris: Typographia Regia.

Tymčenko, J. (ed.). (1985). Istoryčnyj slovnyk ukrajins`koho jazyka [Historical dictionary of the Ukrainian language] (Vol. 1). München: Sagner. (Original book published 1930). (in Ukrainian).

Umanets, M., & Spilka, A. (1893). Slovar rosiisko-ukrainskyi [Russian-Ukrainian dictionary] (Vol. 1). Lviv: Naukove tovarystvo imeni Shevchenka. (in Ukrainian).

Uskorenie plodonosheniya voloshdkikh orekhov. (1899). [Speeding up fruiting of walnuts]. Plodovodstvo, 242. (in Russian).

Varene iz volosslogo orekha (Juglans regia) (1890). [Walnut jam]. Selskij khozyain. 25, 430. (in Russian).

Vasmer, M. von. (1986). Etymologicheskij slovar russkogo yazyka [Etymological dictionary of the Russian language] (O. N. Trubachev, Trans.) (2nd ed.). Moskva: Progress. (Original work published 1950 in Germany). (in Russian).

Voloshchak, M. (2003). Netravylno – pravylno: Dovidnyk z ukrainskogo slovovzhivannia. [Wrong – correct: Handbook of Ukrainian word usage]. Kyiv: Prosvita. (in Ukrainian).

Wilson, L. A. (2014 June 20). The giving walnut. Journal Wild Culture. URL: https://www. wildculture.com/article/giving-walnut/1399.

Zhelezniak, I. M. Korepanova, A. P. Masenko, L. T., Nepokupnyi, A. P., Nimchuk, V. V., Otin, Ie. S. … Tsiluiko, K. K. (1979) Slovnyk hidronimiv Ukrainy [Dictionary of hydronyms of Ukraine]. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. (in Ukrainian).

Zheliezniak, I. M. (2014). Kyivskyi toponimikon [Kyiv toponymicon]. Kyiv: Kyi. (in Ukrainian).

Zhilin, S G. (1980). Semejstvo orekhovye (Juglandaceae) [Family Juglandaceae] In Al. A. Fedorov (Ed.). Zhizn rastenij (Vol. 5, part 1), pp. 330–342. Moskva: Prosveshchenie. (in Russian).

Zyman, S. M., Didukh, Ya. P., Grodzynskyi, D. M., Fedoronchuk, M. M., & Bulakh, O. V. (2008). Trumovnyi slocnuk nazb sudynnykh roslyn flory Ukrainy [Trilingual dictionary of names of vascular plants in the flora of Ukraine] Kyiv: Fitosociocentr. (in Ukrainian).

Issue

Section

Статті